Année / Year 2005
Article mis en ligne le 14 novembre 2012
dernière modification le 12 novembre 2012

par Isabelle Saillot
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SOMMAIRE / CONTENTS

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— Andrew Moskowitz

— Pierre Janet’s influence on Bleuler’s concept of Schizophrenia

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— Isabelle Saillot

— Pierre Janet’s Hierarchy : Stages Or Styles ?

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— Michael Cotsell

— Modernism without Janet ?

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— Onno van der Hart

— Ian Hacking On Pierre Janet : Observations

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— Takashi Fujioka

— The Clinical Approaches by Pierre Janet

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Andrew Moskowitz

Pierre Janet’s influence on Bleuler’s concept of Schizophrenia

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Forewords

Without a doubt, one of the most important psychiatric events of the early 20th century was Eugen Bleuler’s development of the concept of schizophrenia. This word, designating the most famous of all psychiatric disorders, continues to be used today, albeit in a very different sense from that originally proposed by Bleuler. In 1899, about 10 years prior to Bleuler’s innovation, Emil Kraepelin codified the important distinction between manic-depressive insanity and dementia praecox – a distinction that remains central to our contemporary nosological system (witness the lengths to which mainstream psychiatry has gone in attempting to marginalise schizoaffective disorder – a direct challenge to Kraepelin’s dichotomy). However, many European psychiatrists were dissatisfied with aspects of Kraepelin’s diagnosis – particularly the assumption that deterioration, in persons labelled ‘dementia praecox’, was inevitable. Bleuler, in 1911, offered an alternative, which gradually became accepted throughout the Western world.

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Référence à mentionner si vous utilisez cet article :

Moskowitz, A. (2005). Pierre Janet’s influence on Bleuler’s concept of Schizophrenia. Janetian studies online Vol. 2. url : http;//pierre-janet.com/JSarticles/2005/am05.doc. Consulté le 12.11.2012

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Isabelle Saillot

Pierre Janet’s Hierarchy : Stages Or Styles ?

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Abstract

This article presents in a visual way the different meanings that Pierre Janet gave to his hierarchy of psychological phenomena. These pictures allow critiques of the obsolete parts of Pierre Janet’s hierarchy and also help highlighting its great value for a coming dynamic psychology of beliefs, will and feelings. I also deal with a theoretical problem of the graph, depending on wether it’s a hierarchy of conducts or tendencies. In effect, according to Pierre Janet, conducts and tendencies don’t display the same dynamics, hence giving two different kind of graphs, leading to some paradoxes. Pierre Janet does not explain this in detail, and I give a proposal to solve the problem.

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Référence à mentionner si vous utilisez cet article :

Saillot, I. (2005). Pierre Janet’s Hierarchy : Stages Or Styles ? Janetian studies online Vol. 2. url : http;//pierre-janet.com/JSarticles/2005/hierar.doc. Consulté le 12.11.2012

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Michael Cotsell

Modernism without Janet ?

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Forewords

The answer to this question must be both a resounding “Yes !” and a more resounding “No !” Yes, we have had Modernism without Janet, a Modernism which was automatically and always associated with Freud (Cotsell, 2005, 296, n.41) ; still today, if I address a conference session of my colleagues in literary studies, even modernist literary studies, I must always explain who Janet was. “No,” because, despite this critical and scholarly omission, Janet is at the very heart of Modernism from about 1890 to the late 1920s, as a direct influence on other thinkers and on literary authors ; as an indirect influence ; and as the central expression of a psychiatry that affected many modernist writers and thinkers (need it be said, including Freud). Some part of this paper will be spent on justifying the above propositions. My book The Theater of Trauma has made this case in detail for American modernist drama, including the major work of Eugene O’Neill and Susan Glaspell. Some American dramatists knew Janet personally (August Thomas, The Harvest Moon, 1909) ; some were directly influenced by his work (T. S. Eliot) ; others, like Gertrude Stein, were influenced by Janet via William James, whose Principles of Psychology, even in its abbreviated high school form ( which was known to students as “Jimmy”) cites Janet on multiple personality at some length. O’Neill, on the other hand—perhaps along with D. H. Lawrence—appears to be the artist whose work has been most subject to both Freudian interpretation and complaint about that influence.

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Référence à mentionner si vous utilisez cet article :

Cotsell, M. (2005). Modernism without Janet ? Janetian studies online Vol. 2. url : http;//pierre-janet.com/JSarticles/2005/modernism.doc. Consulté le 12.11.2012

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Onno van der Hart

Ian Hacking On Pierre Janet : Observations

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Forewords

Having received positive reviews in major newspapers, Ian Hacking’s interesting book, Rewriting the Soul : Multiple Personality and the Sciences of Memory (1995), looks to be an influential publication on the subject of dissociative identity disorder (formerly multiple personality disorder). It is unfortunate, therefore, that this book contains a number of errors regarding Pierre Janet’s works in general, and in particular, concerning his contributions to the origin of dissociation theory.
Hacking suggests that too big a role has been attributed to Janet in the history of dissociation. He claims that this distortion of Janet’s prominence is the result of Ellenberger’s book, The Discovery of the Unconscious (1970), which devotes a large and sympathetic chapter to Janet and which, according to Hacking, includes “virtually nothing” about Janet’s later works. Hacking concludes :
Hence the legend has accumulated around Janet that he was the great founder of the theory of dissociation. (...) Ellenberger unwittingly made it possible for Janet to become the patriarch of dissociation. (pp. 44-45)
Hacking’s book makes several claims regarding Janet’s work. Hacking credits Janet as the inventor of the word “dissociation” (in its present psychiatric sense), although he claims that Janet dropped the use of this word after the publication of his philosophical thesis of 1889, L ’automatisme psychologique [Psychological automatism].

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Référence à mentionner si vous utilisez cet article :

Van der Hart, O. (2005). Ian Hacking On Pierre Janet : Observations Janetian studies online Vol. 2. url : http;//pierre-janet.com/JSarticles/2005/ovdh05A.doc. Consulté le 12.11.2012

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Takashi Fujioka

The Clinical Approaches by Pierre Janet

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Forewords

1. The research on the works of Pierre Janet in Japan
In Japan, one has to notice that the research on the works of Janet is not maturing compared with the works of Freud in the present situation. Almost all of Freud’s works were translated into Japanese and are read by many Japanese people. On the other hand, the following three are the only translated works of Janet. Moreover, regrettably, these are not reprinted presently, so they are only accessible at libraries. (…)
There is definitely a need to translate L’AUTOMATISME PSYCHOLOGIQUE (print :Paris : Felix Alcan) (1889). As a matter of fact, hopefully, the complete translations of Janet’s works would be published in the near future. Now, in Japan, child abuse, school non-attendance, and delinquency have become major problems in the child welfare area. The approaches of Janet may contribute greatly to those issues.
It seems that the approaches of Janet are reevaluated in Japan based on the Clinical approaches centered on hypnosis, clinical psychology, psychiatry, and child welfare in addition to the concept of dissociation coined by Janet. In this report, the focus is on the concept of dissociation, established by Janet, and clinical approaches.

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Référence à mentionner si vous utilisez cet article :

Fujioka, T. (2005). The Clinical Approaches by Pierre Janet Janetian studies online Vol. 2. url : http;//pierre-janet.com/JSarticles/2005/tf05.doc. Consulté le 12.11.2012

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